metformin side effects

WRITER 1 (sophysid)

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin is popular with doctors treating type 2 diabetes because of its effectiveness, but as with other drugs, metformin has side effects

Diabetes

Diabetes which is also called Mellitus is a body condition where the patient’s body produces too much glucose or has a high sugar level. The causes of diabetes can be as a result of the body under producing insulin, or the body does not respond to the insulin. Sometimes diabetes can be a result of both.
Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose enter the body’s cells and be us3d as energy. When insulin is not functioning well, the glucose stays in the bloodstream and causes high blood sugar.

Persons who have diabetes will experience frequent urination (polyuria), constant thirst (polydipsia) and continuous hunger (polyphagia).

The presence of excess glucose in the bloodstream can lead to eye problems, damaged kidneys and nerves, heart failure, stroke and in some cases amputation of limbs. Persons with a higher than average blood sugar level who do not have full-blown diabetes have prediabetes and stand a risk of having type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

When a person is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it means that their pancreas does not produce insulin and since insulin is the hormone that enables the glucose to move from the bloodstream to the body cells and be converted into energy, the lack of insulin production by the pancreas will result in a high blood sugar level.

When the immune system in an autoimmune response begins to destroy the insulin-producing called the beta cells, at about 90% of cells destroyed the body falls into type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic type of diabetes persons who suffer from it have to take insulin for the rest of their life, and as with all diabetic patients, a change in diet and lifestyle is required.

Although type 1 diabetes is most common in children and young adults, some older still have type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, and persons with family history of type 1 diabetes or persons with one or more genes are susceptible to it.
Sometimes the environment and lifetime diet can trigger an autoimmune response.

Some of the symptoms associated with type 1 diabetes include constant thirst, frequent urination, constant exhaustion, always feeling hungry, unconscious rapid weight loss, getting easily injured and the sores healing slowly, dry or itching Skin, numbness in the feet or experiencing tingling in feet and blurry eyesight.

Type 2 diabetes

Unlike with type 1 diabetes where the body’s pancreas does not produce insulin or the immune system attacks the insulin thereby leaving the glucose in the bloodstream, type 2 diabetes happens when the body refuses to use the insulin properly, it resists the insulin. The pancreas tries to make more insulin to cover up for this condition, but after a while, it cannot keep up with producing enough insulin to keep up with the blood sugar.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and is easy to handle.
Some diabetes patients can handle it with a change in diet and exercises, but over time they might require pills and regular insulin to keep up with the glucose production.

Significant causes of type 2 diabetes are Excess weight, consumption of food and beverages that contain lots of sugar or Simple carbohydrate, consumption of food and drinks with artificial sweeteners stress, lack of exercises and activity or genetics.

Dark underarms, chin or groin and unusual urine odor or color are additional symptoms of symptoms of type 1 that are symptoms of type 2.

Diabetes treatment

While researchers are getting yet to find a cure or complete therapy for diabetes, there are however effective ways to manage the disease so that it doesn’t escalate.

The treatment of diabetes is based on the type of diabetes.

In handling a patient with type 1 diabetes, the usual treatment method includes taking of insulin, counting of carbohydrate, fat and protein intake, Frequent blood sugar monitoring, healthy foods, regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight.

In more aggressive cases where diabetes has deteriorated, a pancreas transport can be carried out.

For type 2 diabetes, a combination of lifestyle change, exercising and medication. Oral drugs like metformin, meglitinides, sulfonylureas and DPP-4 inhibitors are used to treat type 2 diabetes. Their drugs given to lower cholesterol, slow the breakdown of glucose, some inside the kidney to pass out extra sugar during urination. There are injectable drugs, and in some cases, insulin is administered. Since most persons with type 2 diabetes are obese, a weight loss surgery can be performed too.

Metformin

There are a lot of drugs used to treat diabetes and metformin is one of the popular ones. Metformin is usually combined with strict diet and regular exercise to control the blood sugar level levels of a type 2 diabetes patient.
Since type 2 diabetes is as a result of the body resistance, metformin induces the body to respond appropriately to the insulin it produces, causes the liver to produce less sugar and reduces the amount of sugar the stomach and intestines absorb.

And like with all drugs metformin has its side effects although they are minimal when compared to other drugs.

Metformin dosage

Metformin can be administered to both adults and kids with type 2 diabetes. For adult dosage Immediate-release:
The initial dosage is given in either 500mg twice a day or 850 mg once a day.
Dose titration: increase the dosage weekly by 500mg or every 2 weeks by 850mg according to the how much the patient can tolerate.
Maintenance dosage is 2000mg per day while the maximum dosage is 2250 mg per day.

For an extended release, the initial dose is between 500 and 1000 mg orally once a day and can be Increased in 500 mg weekly increments as tolerated while the maintenance dose is 2000 mg daily and the maximum dose is about 2500 mg daily.

For children dosage, the first application is 500 mg orally twice daily and will be increased weekly by 500mg. Maximum and maintenance dosage is 2000mg per day.

Metformin HCl

Metformin hydrochloride (HCl) is an antihyperglycemic tablet used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

Metformin side effects

Surprisingly, metformin has low side effects which are not the less serious.
Metformin side effects include;
Lactic acidosis, low blood sugar, stomach ache, and exhaustion.

WRITER 2 (groundhope)

Metformin side effects

Metformin is a drug, which is commonly used to prevent or cure Type 2 diabetes. Meformin, which is sometimes referred to as ‘Glucophage’, is a scientifically tested and proven tablet by the Food and Drug Administration based in the United States of America. This drug is often utilized to bring down the production of hepatic glucose and enhance the level of insulin present in your body.

Metformin is regarded as a supplement to an individual’s routine diet and daily exercise. Most of the individuals who are suffering from Type 2 diabetes are forced to use insulin. One of the major highlights of using this tablet is that it does not cause any weight gain.However, there is no enough evidence to support this drug in the prevention of cardio vascular diseases as well as cancer. Now let us look at some of the side effects of Metformin in men.

An eminent French physician named Jeane Sterne introduced Metformin back in the year 1922. This tablet was initially launched in certain countries like France and the United States of America in 1957 and 1995 respectively. The World Health Organization later listed Metformin under the category of safe medicines. During those times, it was considered as an effective drug in the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

Back in the year 2008, the American Diabetes Association or in short, ADA prescribed Metformin in curing pre-diabetes. It was suggested only for those people who are below age of sixty and who are highly susceptible to diabetes. Besides that, individuals who were suffering from obesity and women who are affected with gestational diabetes also used it.

A recent research revealed that, prescribing this drug has been reduced due to some of its majorside effects.

Metformin side effects in men

Studies revealed that regular intake of Metformin does not cure diabetes instead it helps to regulate the level of an individual’s blood sugar. It is a long-term process and it contains numerous side effects. Consuming Metformin on a regular basis has a significant impact on the health of both men as well as women. Some of the Metformin side effects in men are Stomachache, Nausea and vomiting sensation, Diarrhea, Weight loss, severe headache and Loss of appetite.

Some of the major side effects of Metformin might lead to lactic acidosis. Most of the Metformin packets consist of a warning sign highlighting the risk factors of consuming it. It is a warning, which is given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is a condition, which requires immediate medical treatment. It is highly recommended to consult a doctor if individual experience symptoms like loss of appetite, tiredness and weakness, vomiting sensation, breathing problems, severe headaches, discoloration of your skin and stomachache.

Those individuals who are suffering from problems or issues related to either Kidney or liver should avoid consuming Metformin. The concerned physician or doctor will monitor the individual’s health to ensure there is no health issues associated with liver and kidney. The doctors suggest that before the intake of Metformin, an individual must make sure that he/she is not dehydrated. Consuming alcohol and aerated drinks is also not recommended while taking this drug.

It has a significant impact on gastro-intestinal and ultimately leads to the impairment of liver and kidney functions. There were reports suggesting that those people who are suffering from hypothyroidism must avoid the intake of Metformin since it could lead to a reduction in the level of blood. A very higher dosage and regular intake of Metformin might decrease the level of Vitamin B12 present in your body.

Metformin side effects weight loss

Metformin, which is nicknamed as ‘Glucophage’, are one of the drugs, which are utilized by those individuals who wish to lose their weight. It helps in lowering the level of blood sugar thereby reducing their appetites.

Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a type of hormonal disorder, which is commonly found among women. It is estimated that about 12% of women are affected with PCOS around the world. Such group of women often undergoes problems with respect to fertility. Women who have are suffering from PCOS contains a large number of male hormones and are resistant to insulin. The chances of type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, cardio vascular diseases and uterine cancer are higher in those women who are affected with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

One of the major problems faced by women who are affected with PCOS is that their system is not able to generate insulin, which helps in the conversion of sugar, and starches present in the food to create energy.

 

Combination of Metformin and Oxybutynin

It is highly recommended to consult a physician or a doctor before the intake of both Metformin and Oxybutynin. Oxybutynin is a drug, which is used to treat problems associated with bladder. However, constant use of this drug might lead to swelling of your eyes, arms and feet. Besides that, it affects the nervous system, which causes tiredness, agitation and a state of confusion.

Effects of using both Metformin and Indomethacin

There has been no evidence to suggest the side effects of using both the above-mentioned drugs so far. Indomethacin is a tablet, which is used to cure severe pain, stiffness as well as swelling. Indomethacin comes under the category of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or in short NSAID. This is a useful drug, which helps in regulating the process of inflammation.

Regular intake of Indomethacin helps in the recovery of osteo-arthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis. The Food and Drug Administration approved this tablet back in the year 1965. It is headquartered at United States of America. At present, several drug manufacturers sell this drug under various other names. Indo-Lemmon and Tivorbex are some of the names assigned to Indomethacin.

Side effects of Indomethacin

Constant intake of Indomethacin might lead to heart attack and strokes. The risk factor is higher in those individuals who are suffering from heart disease or high blood pressure.

WRITER 9 (natashawriter)

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin

Metformin is a prescription drug for the treatment of type II diabetes in adults and children. 

Uses of Metformin

Metformin is a medicine used in the treatment of oral diabetes, by helping to control the levels of blood sugar in the body.  For adults with type II diabetes mellitus, Metformin is used alongside regular and proper dieting to improve blood sugar control.  It could be used for other medications too, alongside insulin.  However, it is never used for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. 

For easy prescription and dosage, Metformin has been made into capsules with different concentrations. 

Metformin 500mg – This is a capsule made from Metformin and which contains 500 mg (milligram) of the same.

Metformin 1000mg – This is a capsule made from Metformin and which contains 1000 mg (milligram) of the same.

Side Effects of Metformin

As observed in virtually all other medications, Metformin does have many side effects too.  It is capable of affecting various people in various ways.  For easy understanding, the side effects of Metformin is usually divided by frequency, i.e., how often they occur. 

The first category is the very common side effects, which affects more than one in ten people using the medication.  These include vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, gut disturbance, loss of appetite and abdominal pain. 

The second category is the common side effects, which affects between one in ten and one in hundred people taking Metformin, and this is taste disturbance – most times a metallic taste.

The last group of side effects is the very rare ones.  They affect under one in ten thousand people under the medication.  They include skin reactions (e.g., rash, flushing or itching), reduced absorption of vitamin B12 on using metformin for a long time, and lactic acidosis (elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood). 

Metformin Side Effects on Alcohol

Generally, taking alcohol while on metformin medication is never helpful, hence it is never recommended by doctors. The side effects experienced as a result of combining metformin and alcohol can be life threatening.  The two put stress on the liver, hence increasing the risk of liver complications while intensifying the harmful effects. 

Metformin as a medication functions by promoting the uptake of glucose into tissues, by reducing sugar levels in the bloodstream and by improving insulin sensitivity.   It reduces glucose (sugar) level by increasing the efficiency of the usage of glucose by the body.  This, in turn, makes the liver produce less glucose, and the intestines less glucose. 

In the same vein, alcohol holds significant effects on the levels of body blood sugar.  Digesting alcohol stresses the liver, which is an organ saddled with the responsibility of removing toxins and poisons from the body.  If the amount of alcohol to be processed by the liver is higher than usual, it becomes overworked and hence releases less glucose.  Also, the cells become less sensitive to insulin. Hence glucose level is increased as less glucose is absorbed from the bloodstream.

Metformin Side Effects on Weight Loss

Maybe, Metformin contributes to weight loss.  Though it remains unclear why metformin may cause weight loss, research has shown that it can help some people lose weight. One possible explanation for this is the theory that it may make you reduce your appetite, and hence you eat less.  It may also alter the way the body stores and uses fat.  However, the drug is not officially a quick-fix solution to weight loss.  The weight loss caused by metformin medication has been observed to tend to occur over one to two years.  Also, the degree of loss is different from one individual to another. 

Metformin Side Effects on Weight Gain

It is important to state that though metformin may cause weight loss, it does not cause weight gain, unlike other medicines used in treating type-two diabetes.

Metformin tends to cause neither weight gain nor weight loss when taken by individuals who follow a healthy diet and exercise strictly.  This may be due to the thought that metformin increases the number of calories burnt during exercise.  As a result, if the individual under the medication does not exercise, then there is the likelihood of not gaining weight at all.  Any weight lost during the medication may only last as long as the duration of the medication, and there is a high probability that the individual will return to their original weight once they stop the medication. 

 

Glipizide and Blood Sugar Levels

Glipizide is also used in the treatment of type II diabetes, alongside exercise, diet and sometimes other medications.  It is a group of medications referred to as sulfonylureas.  Glipizide works by lowering the blood sugar, this it does by making the pancreas produce insulin and assisting the body in using the produced insulin effectively.  It only lowers the blood sugar level in individuals whose bodies still produce insulin naturally, hence it is not used for the treatment of type I diabetes. 

As expected of any medication, side effects are also possible with Glipizide.  The most common are blood sugar levels too high and blood sugar levels too low.  For some individuals, Glipizide can lead to hypoglycemia (where the blood sugar level drops too low) and in others, it can cause hyperglycemia (where the blood sugar level rises too high). 

Hypoglycemia, being one of the more common side effects of Glipizide, occurs in about 3.4% of people taking the medication.  Low blood sugar is more common in people with liver, kidney, pituitary or adrenal problems and also in elderly people.  Symptoms of hypoglycemia are grouped based on the extent of the reduction in the blood sugar level.  Examples of early symptoms include cold sweats, blurry vision, dizziness, extreme hunger, sweating, and shakiness.  For extremely low blood sugar levels, symptoms include irritability or other changes in behavior, loss of coordination, difficulty in speaking, confusion, seizures, unconsciousness, coma, and loss of life.

Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, is another common side effect of Glipizide.  It is possible even in individuals with well-controlled diabetes.  For instance infections, fever, surgery or injury can increase blood sugar levels in people who have diabetes temporarily, irrespective of the medication they are on.  In situations like this, insulin may be required as Glipizide may not be enough to treat this type of diabetes.  However, possible symptoms of high blood sugar include blurred vision, fatigue, short breath, nausea, increased urination, increased thirst, increased hunger and others.

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